Causal and Non-causal Language

For each of the "headlines" below, determine whether the language is causal or non-causal. Remember that causal language should indicate one variable is affecting the other and indicate the direction of that causality, while non-causal, correlational language notes and describes a relationship, without suggesting that one variable affects the other.


Part 1: Listed below are sets of two "headlines" for the same study. For each set, circle the one that sounds more causal.




Part 2: Below are individual headlines for different studies. Determine whether each is causal or non-causal.